Rootes Arrow

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Rootes Group "Arrow" series
1972 Hillman Hunter GLS
Automotive industryRootes
Chrysler Europe
Production1966-1979 (until 2005 in Iran)
PredecessorHillman Minx
Successornone
Car body style4-door Sedan (car)
5-door Station wagon
2-door Coupé
2-door Pick-up
Internal combustion engine1725 cc Straight-4
1500 cc Straight-4
Transmission (mechanics)4 speed manual
4-speed manual + D-type Laycock Overdrive (1966-1972)
4-speed manual + J-type Laycock Overdrive (1972 on)
Borg-Warner 35/65 automatic
Wheelbase98 in (2489 mm) (saloon)
Length171 in (4343 mm) (saloon)
Width63 in (1600 mm) (saloon)
Curb weight2,100 lb (953 kg) (saloon)
RelatedSee article for list of Arrow marques
Paykan
Automotive designRex Fleming (overall)
Roy Axe (estate and coupé)

Rootes Arrow was the manufacturer's name for a range of Automobile produced under several Badge engineering Marque by the Rootes (later Chrysler Europe) from 1966 to 1979. It is considered by many to be the last set of true Rootes designs, since it was developed with no influence from Chrysler.

The models sold – not all concurrently – were, alphabetically by marque:

  • Chrysler Hunter
  • Dodge Husky
  • Hillman Break de Chasse, Hillman Hunter and Hillman Minx
  • Humber Sceptre
  • Singer Gazelle and Singer Vogue
  • Sunbeam Alpine and Sunbeam Rapier fastback coupés
  • Sunbeam Arrow, Sunbeam Break de Chasse, Sunbeam Hunter, Sunbeam Minx, Sunbeam Sceptre, and Sunbeam Vogue

The most prolific model within the Arrow range, the Hillman Hunter, was the Coventry-based company's major competitor in the medium Family car segment. In its 13-year production run, its UK market contemporaries included the Ford Cortina, Morris Marina and Vauxhall Victor, although model positioning within the range meant competition with some larger cars as well, including the BMC ADO17.

The Arrow range extended to several body styles: Sedan (car), Station wagon, Fastback Coupé and a Pickup truck (sold mainly in South Africa as the Dodge Husky). Depending on the model, they had two doors or four doors. Not all marques were represented in all body styles, with the coupés being reserved for Sunbeam.

Contents

Models and market positions


In line with Rootes's fondness for badge-engineered derivatives, and keeping alive the names and reputations of the companies it had purchased, the car was simultaneously aimed at several slightly different market segments.

Hillman

The first models were given the Hillman Hunter name with the respected name Hillman Minx (for the cheaper version), following slightly later. Hillman would remain the British group's most prolific marque, as over time some of the lesser brands faded away. The Hunter model name was not in fact entirely new for a Rootes-related car, having been used for one year's production of the Singer SM1500.

Sports models included the Hillman GT, which was based on the Minx trim, but was a model in its own right (not a "Hillman Minx GT" nor "Hillman Hunter GT"). Later came the Hillman Hunter GLS with a specially-tuned twin-Carburettor engine (by Holbay) shared with the Sunbeam Rapier H120 model.

The Hunter supported the image of the whole range when one driven by Andrew Cowan won the 1968 London-Sydney Marathon rally.

The range was soon simplified with trim levels: the Hillman Hunter "DeLuxe" or "DL" replaced the Minx, and above that was the Hunter "Super". The "Hillman Hunter GT" eventually replaced the Hillman GT, and the "GLS" was positioned at the top of the range.

A Hillman Break de Chasse was marketed in French language markets, based on the Minx specification. (Also offered was a similar Sunbeam Break de Chasse; "break" being a French term for an estate, and the phrase "break de chasse" translating roughly as Shooting-brake.)

Singer

Briefly following the retirement of the Singer brand, and throughout the model life for principal export markets, the Singer Vogue was badged, like this one, as a Sunbeam.
The Singer Vogue and Singer Gazelle were positioned slightly upmarket of the Hillmans Hunter and Minx respectively. The Singers were short-lived models, retired in 1970 along with the rest of the Singer range.

Sunbeam

1974 Sunbeam Rapier fastback coupé

The single-carburettor Sunbeam Alpine and twin-carburettor Sunbeam Rapier were only sold as fastback coupés, and were marketed with a strong sporting image — although it was eventually the Hillman Hunter which was used in long-distance rallying. The sportiest Sunbeam was the Rapier H120 model, though this shared its specially-tuned Holbay engine with the Hillman Hunter GLS.

Sunbeam Arrow, Sunbeam Break de Chasse, Sunbeam Hunter, Sunbeam Minx, Sunbeam Sceptre, and Sunbeam Vogue were used for export markets where the Sunbeam name was more familiar or deemed more likely to succeed. The Sunbeam Arrow name was used in North America and Canada. Sunbeam Break de Chasse, Hunter and Minx were offered in some French language markets (where "break" is a term for an estate). A Sunbeam Sceptre appeared in some German language markets (at least), and carried the Humber Sceptre level of specification — see below.

The Sunbeam Vogue was available in the home (British) market for a short period after the Singer marque was retired in 1970.

Humber

1975 Humber Sceptre

The Humber Sceptre upheld Humber's tradition of building luxury cars and was the best-appointed version, with the exception of the similar Sunbeam-branded Sunbeam Sceptre sold in some markets.

The manual gearbox model featured either the D-type or the later J-type Laycock Overdrive (mechanics), with the J-type fitted from chassis numbers L3 onwards starting in July 1972[1]. As with all Arrows, an automatic gearbox was an option.

Development


The Arrow range was conceived in 1962. Following the Hillman Imp, consideration was given to developing a larger Rear-engine, rear-wheel drive layout, but this concept was dismissed, and the engineering settled on for the new car was more conventional and closer to the layout of the previous Audax series (which included the previous Hillman Minx).

With cash-strapped Rootes struggling amid continuing problems with the radical Imp (which was being produced in a new factory), the cautious Arrow broke little new engineering ground. New parts were largely based on tried and tested Rootes componentry, using a new but strong 5-bearing version of the well proven 1725 cc overhead valve Petrol engine as a starting point which varied in output from 66 bhp (49 kW) to 95 bhp (71 kW) (in the Humber Sceptre[2]). The engine was inclined by a modest 15 degrees, to allow for a lower bonnet line and to enable packaging of the carburettors. This engine was further uprated by specialists Holbay, employing two Weber carburettor 40DCOE carburettors to produce 107 bhp (80 kW) for the Sunbeam Rapier H120 and Hillman Hunter GLS. A smaller 1500 cc engine was the standard for manual versions of the Hillman Minx and the Singer Gazelle, and the Hillman Hunter DeLuxe model which succeeded the Minx. Automatic models were all powered by the 1725 cc engine. Particular attention was paid to weight and cost to bring the vehicle in line with its natural competitors, including the Mark 2 Ford Cortina.

For the first time in a Rootes car MacPherson strut suspension featured at the front, with a conventional Live axle mounted on Leaf spring at the rear.

Other firsts for Rootes in the new car were curved side glass and flow-through ventilation.

Manual transmissions were available in 4-speed form with an optional Laycock de Normanville Overdrive (Transmission), or Borg-Warner automatic transmission, again as an option. Initially, the Borg warner Type 35 3 speed automatic was offered, then the Type 45 4 speed automatic became available in 1973.

As per typical Rootes practice, the handbrake was situated between the driver's seat and door (i.e. on the driver's right-hand side for a Right- and left-hand traffic car) rather than between the front seats.

A mild facelift in 1970 gave new grilles to the various Hunter trim levels, and some derivatives gained a (then) more fashionable dashboard, exchanging wood for plastic, but the car remained fundamentally the same throughout its life.

A more detailed facelift for 1972 brought a new all-plastic dashboard with deeply hooded round dials (earlier versions had either a strip speedometer or round dials in a flat dashboard for more expensive models like the Vogue), new steering wheel, plastic instead of metal air cleaner, reshaped squarer headlamps in a new grille and some engine tuning changes.

For 1975, bumpers were enlarged and the tail lights were enclosed in a full-width anodised aluminium trim piece.

Following the 1967 acquisition of Rootes by Chrysler, the Arrow derivatives were rationalised until only the Hillman Hunter version was left by 1976, at which time it was re-badged as a Chrysler, which it was to be for the remaining 3 years of its life. Hunter production was switched in 1969 to Rootes' troubled Imp plant in Linwood, from its original home of Ryton-on-Dunsmore. Following the Hillman Avenger's move to Linwood in 1976, the very last Europe Hunters were assembled in the Santry plant, Shanowen Road, Ireland from "Complete knock down" (CKD) kits until production ended in 1979 – but no evidence exists to suggest that the Talbot badge was applied to any production Hunter following Chrysler Europe's 1978 takeover by Peugeot, and the application of that badge to other Chrysler models.

The final Chrysler Hunter was built in September 1979 in Porirua, New Zealand, and was donated to the Southward Museum. In 2000 the Museum sold the car to a private collector.

The Australian and New Zealand ranges


Starting in 1967, Chrysler Australia Ltd assembled the Hillman Hunter from imported Complete knock down packs at their Rootes Australia, which they inherited as part of Chrysler's acquisition of Rootes.

Production commenced in 1967 with 2 models, designated as the HB series: the Arrow (with a trim level corresponding with the home market (United Kingdom) Minx, but with a front bench seat), and the Hunter.

These were replaced by the "HC" series in 1969. The major changes were adoption of the UK face-lifted Hunter radiator grille and rectangular headlights, and the renaming of the Arrow as the Hunter, retaining the Arrow's trim specification and bench seat. At the same time came the introduction of the Safari estate (known in Australia as a station wagon.) The "Safari" name was also used to identify the Australian Chrysler Valiant estate model. There was also the addition of two, new, more upmarket saloon variants: the Hunter Royal (corresponding in trim level with the UK Singer Vogue, but retaining the Hunter plastic moulded dashboard, with simulated wood trim), and the Hunter GT, which corresponded with the UK Humber Sceptre in trim level, but with the standard Hunter grille. These cars featured trim parts from various UK models, including UK Humber Sceptre bonnet ornaments.

The Safari estate was a popular seller — particularly as the competing Holden Torana was not available as an estate.

In 1971, the Australian version of the Hunter was face-lifted again, with the introduction of the "HE" series. Marketing of the car, plus its rear badges, referred to it as the "Hunter", rather than a "Hillman".

The facelift involved a change to the radiator grille, with new and smaller rectangular headlights. Also, the appearance of the rear of the car was changed with a flush trim panel under the boot lid and new twin-lens tail lights. Depending on the model, this panel was painted in the body colour or a matte grey — this facelift was unique to Australia.

Inside, the HE models received a new collapsible steering column, with the Valiant's steering wheel.

The model range was later modified again: a new cut price performance version called the Hustler was introduced. This was similar in concept and execution to the UK Hillman GT — a sparsely trimmed car with high performance.

The Hunter GT was renamed the Hunter Royal 660. Outside, this car gained Rostyle wheels. Inside, the car was trimmed in the same "buffalo grain" textured vinyl which also was to be found in the VG series luxury Valiant, the Regal 770.

These cars sold steadily, but they became overshadowed when Chrysler Australia commenced assembly of the Mitsubishi Galant in 1972. At this time, Japanese cars were being increasingly accepted in the Australian market.[citation needed] By this time, the Mitsubishi was a conspicuously more modern car, and by 1973, the Hunter was phased out, and became the last Rootes car to have been marketed in Australia. Chrysler Australia then closed the former Rootes factory, focussing Australian production at their Tonsley Park plant in Adelaide.

New Zealand importer and Complete knock down assembler Todd Motors also created its own unique versions of the Arrow line. The single 1967 launch version (1725 cc aluminium head engine with manual or three-speed Borg Warner 35 automatic transmission) was almost identical to its UK counterpart but Todd started to use its own upholstery designs from the 1969 rectangular headlight update. For 1970, it added a silver rear trim panel to the Hunter and introduced the estate although this had a lower specification than the saloon — an iron head 1725 cc engine, no automatic option, simpler dashboard trim (no locking glovebox), painted rather than bright metal door window trim and fixed rather than opening front quarter lights.

Todd's also offered a Singer Vogue saloon with a 1725 cc engine and a more upmarket wood veneer dashboard from 1967–71 when it was replaced by the Hunter GL.

The range was given a unique-to-NZ update early in 1971: the iron head "deluxe" estate (never badged as such) was almost unchanged apart from the side "Hunter" badges moving from the front doors to the front guards and revised seat and door trim patterns, and the door tops switched from black to the same colour as the seats. The alloy headed "super" saloon got these changes plus a spray-on black, instead of silver, tail panel — the texture of this changed from textured fake vinyl to a matte black over the year's run. Initially the cars were offered with tan, red, blue or black upholstery with the dash painted to match but after a few months, Todd's switched to a new type of vinyl with different texture for their Avenger, Hunter and Valiant lines and the blue option was dropped and the dashboards reverted to black paint. By now the equivalent Super model in the UK had seen its specification reduced to the iron head engine, no bumper over-riders, less exterior bright metal detailing and fixed front quarterlights — so the New Zealand version was unique.

The range's first major facelift for 1972 brought an uprated motor with new carburettor and ignition tuning, re-profiled camshaft and a plastic air cleaner housing (these models were always harder to keep in tune than their predecessors), smaller, squarer headlamps, a new dashboard with deeply hooded round dials (the Hunters had strip spedometers previously), high-backed front seats, and a revised silver trim panel surrounding the tail lights.

Todds also added a new "GL" model, replacing the Singer Vogue, that initially had little to distinguish it (and justify a higher price) apart from wooden dashboard and door inserts, the same different trim patterns from the old Vogue and standard reversing lights. In 1973 Todds created another completely unique model by updating the GL with the four-headlight nose from the upmarket Humber Sceptre (a rare UK-assembled import) and altering the tail with a new silver strip below the tail lights, incorporating the reversing lights. These changes gave the GL a much more distinctive appearance front and rear.

By the mid-70s, the Hunter was an old model and under siege from newer Japanese rivals. Todd's Hunters adopted the larger bumpers and new grille introduced for 1975 in the UK but the range was eventually rationalised into a single Super saloon model with the four-headlight front end and "wood" dashboard inserts (by then it was synthetic wood rather than the real material used originally). The final updates included standard cigarette lighter and heater control illumination.

Around 1975, the optional automatic was uprated from the three-speed Borg Warner 35 to the new, four-speed 45 but there were supply problems and Todds reverted to the 35 three-speed for several assembly runs of the automatic versions.

As in Australia, though six years later, Mitsubishi from Japan sounded the Hunter's death knell. After beginning with Complete knock down assembly of a single Mitsubishi Galant coupé model in 1972, Todds had added the Mitsubishi Lancer saloon in 1975 and launched its first mid-size Mitsubishi Galant Sigma saloon line in 1977, effectively replacing the Hunter. The far more modern, better equipped "Mitsis" were pricier, and the Hunter still had its fans, so it lingered on until 1979, when, as noted above, it was axed in the UK and Todd's built the last Chrysler-badged version anywhere.

The Iranian Paykan

One of the last Paykans to be produced in Iran

In 1966, Iran National (now Iran Khodro) of Iran began to manufacture Hillman Hunters from Complete knock down kits, after a deal was struck between the Rootes Group and Iran National's director, Mahmoud Khayami. The resulting Paykan (Persian for arrow) saloon, pick-up and taxi models became known as Iran's national car.

Earlier versions used the Hunter 1725cc engine but later kits were shipped with the Avenger's 1,600cc engine mated to the Arrow range gearbox via a special bellhousing.

Full local production began in 1985, after the original British production lines were closed. The new owner in Britain, Peugeot, established a new contract whereby Iran Khodro would manufacture the Paykan with the same body panels but Peugeot 504 engines and suspension, for six more years.

In 1991, Iran Khodro began manufacturing its own parts for the Paykan. In its ultimate incarnation, the Paykan was constructed from 98% locally-made parts.[citation needed]

The Paykan saloon ceased production in May 2005, to be replaced by the Samand, based on the Peugeot 405 platform. The Bardo, the pick-up version of the Paykan is still in production but will be replaced in the near future.

Shared components

  • The Aston Martin DBS, Lotus Seven S4 and early Reliant Scimitar SE5 used tail lights shared with the Rootes Arrow saloons, manufactured by Lucas.
  • The vertical rear lights used on the Arrow estates were also blended into the styling of the fastback coupés, to which they were also fitted.
  • Long before Peugeot took over Chrysler UK, South African-built Hunters shared an overhead-valve engine with the locally-produced Peugeot 404 to meet stringent local content rules.

Footnotes

  1. Chrysler UK Hunter Range (1972 onwards) parts list number 76601711
  2. 88bhp(net) per Autocar, September 1967; 82bhp(DIN) / 92bhp(Gross) per Autocar, December 1974

References

  1. Rootes-Chrysler site
  2. French car brochure collection (the existence of some export brandings is inferred from this evidence)
  3. Australian Sunbeam site and particularly its Sunbeam Vogue page

External links

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