DeSoto (automobile)

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1952 DeSoto DeLuxe hood ornament.

The DeSoto (sometimes De Soto) was a brand of Automobile based in the United States, manufactured and marketed by the Chrysler Corporation from 1928 to 1961. The DeSoto logo featured a stylized image of Hernando de Soto (explorer).

Contents

1929–1942


1929 DeSoto, the first model year of DeSoto

The DeSoto make was founded by Walter P. Chrysler on August 4, 1928, and introduced for the 1929 model year. It was named after the Spanish explorer Hernando de Soto (explorer). Chrysler wanted to enter the brand in competition with its arch-rivals General Motors Corporation, Studebaker, and Willys-Knight, in the mid-price class.

Shortly after DeSoto was introduced, however, Chrysler completed its purchase of the Dodge Brothers, giving the company two mid-priced makes. Had the transaction been completed sooner, DeSoto never would have been introduced.

Initially, the two-make strategy was relatively successful, with DeSoto priced below Dodge models. Despite the economic times, DeSoto sales were relatively healthy, pacing Dodge at around 25,000 units in 1932. However, in 1933, Chrysler reversed the market positions of the two marques in hopes of boosting Dodge sales. By elevating DeSoto, it received Chrysler's streamlined 1934 Airflow bodies. But, on the shorter DeSoto wheelbase, the design was a disaster and was unpopular with consumers. Unlike Chrysler, which still had more traditional models to fall back on, DeSoto was hobbled by the Airflow design until the 1935 Airstream arrived.

Aside from its Airflow models, DeSoto's 1942 model is probably its second most memorable model from the pre-war years, when the cars were fitted with powered Hidden headlamps, a first for a North America mass-production vehicle. DeSoto marketed the feature as "Air-Foil" lights "Out of Sight Except at Night".

Gallery

1946–1960


Insignia from 1952 DeSoto DeLuxe.

After restrictions on automotive production were ended, DeSoto returned to civilian car production when it reissued its 1942 models as 1946 models, but without the hidden-headlight feature, and with fender lines extending into the doors, like other Chrysler products of the immediate postwar period.

Until 1952, DeSoto used the Deluxe and Custom model designations. However, in 1953, DeSoto dropped the Deluxe and Custom names and designated its six-cylinder cars the Powermaster and its V8 car the Firedome.

At its height, DeSoto's more popular models included the Firedome, Firesweep, and Fireflite. The DeSoto Adventurer, introduced for 1956 as a high-performance hard-top coupe (similar to Chrysler's 300), became a full-range model in 1960.

DeSotos sold well through the 1956 model year. In 1957, they, along with all Chrysler models, were redesigned with Virgil Exner's "Forward Look". Exner gave the DeSoto soaring tailfins fitted with triple taillights, and consumers responded by buying record numbers of the car. The 1957 DeSoto had a well integrated design, with two variations: the smaller Firesweep, based on the concurrent Dodge; and the Firedome and Fireflite (and its Halo model Adventurer sub-series), based on the larger Chrysler body. As was conventional in the era, subsequent years within the typical three year model block were distinguished by trim, bumper, and other low cost modifications, typically by adding bulk to bumpers and grilles, taillight changes, color choices, instrumentation and interior design changes and often additional external trim. The 1958 economic downturn hurt sales of mid-priced makes across the board, and DeSoto sales were 60 percent lower than those of 1957 in what would be DeSoto's worst year since 1938. The sales slide continued for 1959 and 1960, and rumors began to circulate that DeSoto was going to be discontinued. 1960 saw sales down 40 percent from the already low 1959 figures.

Gallery

1961


In its final model year, DeSoto lacked any model names and was simply marketed under its brand name.

By the time the 1961 DeSoto was introduced in the fall of 1960, rumors were widespread that Chrysler was moving towards terminating the brand, fueled by a reduction in model offerings for the 1960 model year.

For 1961, DeSoto lost its series designations entirely, in a move reminiscent of Packard final lineup. And, like the final Packards, the final DeSoto was of questionable design merit. Again, based on the shorter Chrysler Windsor wheelbase, the DeSoto featured a two-tiered grille (each tier with a different texture) and revised taillights. Only a two-door hardtop and a four-door hardtop were offered. The cars were trimmed similarly to the 1960 Fireflite.

The final decision to discontinue DeSoto was announced on November 30, 1960, just forty-seven days after the 1961 models were introduced. At the time, Chrysler warehouses contained several million dollars in 1961 DeSoto parts, so the company ramped up production in order to use up the stock. Chrysler and Plymouth dealers, which had been forced to take possession of DeSotos under the terms of their franchise agreements, received no compensation from Chrysler for their unsold DeSotos at the time of the formal announcement. Making matters worse, Chrysler kept shipping the cars through December, many of which were sold at a loss by dealers eager to be rid of them. After the parts stock was exhausted, a few outstanding customer orders were filled with Chrysler Windsors.

Termination factors

Despite being a successful mid-priced line for Chrysler for most of its life, DeSoto's failure was due to a combination of corporate mistakes and external factors beyond Chrysler's control.

Recession

The 1958 recession, which seriously affected demand for mid-priced automobile makes, hurt DeSoto sales particularly hard, and they failed to recover in 1959 and 1960. With falling sales, the 1959 and 1960 models were very similar to the concurrent Chryslers, and rumors began to circulate that DeSoto would be discontinued.

1950s DeSoto automobile in Havana, Cuba.

Dealer networks

Chrysler's dealer network also had an effect on the termination of DeSoto. Following World War II, Chrysler had a large number of dealers that carried two or more Chrysler makes, with Plymouth–DeSoto and Chrysler–Plymouth relationships being the most common. However, as Chrysler attempted to spin Plymouth off into stand-alone dealerships, existing dealers typically chose to become higher-volume Plymouth dealerships over the slower-selling DeSoto brand, leaving the marque with a weakened dealer network and fewer outlets selling its cars. Also, DeSoto Division's failure to adjust to changing market trends by introducing a new compact car model in 1960 as its GM and Ford counterparts, as well as its own Dodge and Plymouth siblings did, also hastened its demise.

Brand management and marketing

It was Chrysler's own brand management, which pitted each of the five marques (Plymouth, Dodge, DeSoto, Chrysler and Imperial) against one other, that did the greatest damage to DeSoto and, ultimately, to the company itself in long-range product planning.[citation needed] Rather than carefully managing the market relationship to specific price points for all consumers, as General Motors Corporation had done so successfully, Chrysler allowed its own divisions to develop products targeting markets covered by their own sister divisions. Dodge was, by far, the most successful when it introduced the lower-priced Dodge Dart in 1960, advertising for which compared the Dart to the "C" car, the "F" car, and the "P" car—Chevrolet, Ford, and Plymouth. While Dart sales soared in 1960, they did so at the expense of Plymouth, which lost sales to the Dart. Plymouth, traditionally one of the "low priced three" fell out of third place, only to regain it twice (1971 and 1974) before its own demise in 2001.

When Chrysler marketing showed that consumers were likelier to buy an entry-level Chrysler than a DeSoto, Chrysler, seeing the opportunity, introduced the Chrysler Newport as a 1961 model, selling more than 45,000 units in its first year. At less than $3,000, the Newport, along with the Dodge Custom 880 introduced in 1962 covered the small price range that DeSoto had filled. Both Chrysler, moving downmarket with the Newport, and Dodge, moving upmarket with the 880, cut into and eroded Desoto's market. This move downmarket by Chrysler Division into DeSoto's price class was also fueled by the launch of the luxury Imperial as a separate make and division in 1955.

"The Final DeSoto"

While various collectors claim to own the last DeSoto sold to the public, DeSoto's Vehicle Identification Number (VIN) system was altered in its final days, showing that the "final" DeSoto could have been produced on any number of dates in the last half of November 1960.

DeSoto trucks

1951 De Soto trucks ad

Chrysler Corporation introduced the DeSoto brand of trucks in 1937 to provide a greater number of sales outlets overseas for the American-built Dodge and Fargo commercial vehicles. In an exercise of Badge engineering typical of Chrysler, the DeSoto mark was later used sporadically in Dodge trucks made in Australia, Argentina, Spain, Turkey or the UK.

After the collapse of Chrysler's overseas truck business, the DeSoto trucks are only a current reality in Turkey, where Fargo and DeSoto trucks are still made by Askam Kamyon Imalat, nowadays with no technical nor business connection with Chrysler.

Models

Advertising

De Soto Fire Dome V8 engine, at the 1952 Los Angeles International Automobile Show

DeSoto sponsored the popular television Game show You Bet Your Life in which host Groucho Marx promoted the product by urging viewers to visit a DeSoto dealer with the phrase "tell 'em Groucho sent you". There was also a DeSoto Plymouth logo visible in the background all during the show.

The Cole Porter song "It's De-Lovely" was used in DeSoto advertising. "It's delovely, it's dynamic, it's DeSoto."

DeSoto in films

  • Cars that are prominently featured

1949 DeSoto Custom in the 1960 film Classe Tous Risques (The Big Risk).[1]

1951 DeSoto Custom Convertible in the 1957 film Le Feu aux Poudres (Burning Fuse).[2]

1954 DeSoto Firedome driven by Albert Einstein (Walter Matthau) in the 1994 film titled IQ.[3] Four door in the beginning of the film and convertible by the end.

1956 DeSoto Fireflite Convertible in the 1957 Federico Fellini film Le Notti di Cabiria (Nights of Cabiria).[4]

1956 DeSoto Firedome driven by Scottie Ferguson (James Stewart (actor)) in the 1958 Alfred Hitchcock classic Vertigo (film).[5]

1956 DeSoto Fireflite Convertible in the 1958 film La Vie à Deux (Life Together).[6]

1959 DeSoto Firesweep Convertible in the 1991 film Mystery Date.[7]

1961 DeSoto 4-door hardtop early in the 1988 film Mississippi Burning, from which a body is thrown into the street.[8]

DeSoto in pop culture

  • Comic strips
    • In the comic strip The Piranha Club, the character of Ernie Floyd drives a purple 1957 DeSoto Fireflite.
    • In the comic strip Shoe (comic strip), the main character, "Perfesser" Cosmo Fishhawk, drove a pink 1959 DeSoto.
    • A 1960 DeSoto squad car serves as the main transportation for the comic book characters Sam & Max, and was also featured in the computer games Sam & Max Hit the Road, Sam & Max Season One and Sam & Max Season Two.
  • Television
    • For the majority of the 1950s themed TV show Happy Days, Mr. Cunningham drove a navy blue 1946 DeSoto.[9]
    • In the 1956-60 Desilu Productions syndicated series "Sheriff of Cochise/ U. S Marshall," series star John Bromfield drove a DeSoto station wagon with Bulletproof glass.
    • In the TV series Buffy the Vampire Slayer (TV series), the character Spike drove a 1959 DeSoto during seasons 2 and 3. The car is often associated with the character in fan fiction.

See also

  • List of automobile manufacturers
  • List of defunct automobile manufacturers

References

  • Kimes, Beverly R., Editor. Clark, Henry A. (1996). The Standard Catalog of American Cars 1805-1945. Kraus Publications. ISBN 0-87341-428-4. 
  • Gunnell, John, Editor (1987). The Standard Catalog of American Cars 1946–1975. Kraus Publications. ISBN 0-87341-096-3. 
  • Foster, Kit. "1960–61 DeSoto: The End of Adventure". Collectible Automobile Magazine, October 2004, Volume 21, Number 3, pages 34–47.

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