Dodge Polara

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Dodge Polara
1970 Polara
Automotive industryDodge
Parent companyChrysler Corporation
Production1960-1973
Car classificationFull-size
Automobile layoutFR layout

The Dodge Polara was an automobile introduced in the United States for the 1960 Model year as Dodge's top-of-the-line Full-size car; after the introduction of the Dodge Custom 880 in 1962, the Polara nameplate designated a step below the best trimmed Dodge model. In its various forms, the Polara name was used by Dodge until 1973, when its position in Dodge's line-up was replaced by the Dodge Monaco.

1960 marked the first year that all Chrysler models, save the Imperial, used Unibody construction.

Contents

1960–62


First generation
Production1960-1961
AssemblyWindsor, Ontario, Canada
Car body style4-door Sedan (car)
2-door Coupe
2-door Convertible
4-door Station wagon
Wheelbase3099 mm (122 in)
RelatedDodge Dart
Dodge Matador

The 1960 Polara and other full-sized Dodges featured styling cues carried over from 1959 models, itself an evolution of Virgil Exner's "Forward Look" cars introduced in 1957. The top-of-the line Polara and Dodge Matador continued to ride on the 122-inch (3,099 mm) wheelbase of their predecessors, while a new line-up of still full-sized Dodge Darts rode on a shorter 118-inch (2,997 mm) wheelbase. The Polara was available as a 2-door Convertible, 2-door Hardtop Coupe, 4-door hardtop Sedan (car), 4-door hardtop Station wagon, and conventional (pillared) 4-door sedan.

Like these cars, both 1960 full-sized Dodges continued with the make's styling hallmarks of stacked "jet pod" tail lights, however, the size of the lights was greatly increased compared to the previous year's lamps, with the lower lights set into the rear bumper. The design also incorporated Dodge’s trademark shortened tail fins, which included small vertical tail light lenses placed on the vertical surface at the back of the fin; again, the purpose of the shortened fin was meant to exaggerate the length of the "jet pods" holding the tail lights (The fins on Darts appeared to be longer.) Up front, the car featured a small grille comprised of eight stacks of chromed rectangles nested in a massive (and complex) front bumper assembly. As the top model in the line-up, the Polara featured better interior fabrics and trim treatments. Polaras also received more trim on the outside of the car, most notably a chrome stone guard aft of the rear wheel housings, a full-length chrome spear, and a wide chrome base to the chrome spear atop the headlight housings.

For 1961, Dodge dropped the Matador, leaving the Polara as the sole "senior" Dodge model. Darts on the shorter wheelbase continued. For 1961, Exner’s styling department reversed the car’s fins, making them taller as they flowed toward the rear window. As the fins sloped towards the rear of the car, they cut slightly towards the center (to allow the single tail light housing on each side) of the rear of the vehicle, wrapping downward and then back along the side fender to form a C-shaped line accentuated in chrome. The overall effect made the rear of the car seem to "pucker" from the angles the design created. Up front, the massive bumper treatments that had been a Dodge hallmark since 1957 were replaced with a simple bar design, above which was a massive concave grille shared with the Dodge Dart.

The 1961 styling overhaul of the Dodge line-up was different from anything else on the US market at that time (save the 1961 Plymouth, which was equally unique in its styling) and consumers voted on the 1961 restyle with their car-shopping dollars. Sales of fullsize Dodges plunged to their lowest levels since the firms founding in 1914, with only 14,032 units produced in the United States. For the second straight year, the make was carried by the Dart which saw sales of 142,000 units for the year. Total Dodge sales for 1961 were down 53% compared to 1960, dropping the make from sixth in the American market to ninth place.

1962–64


Second generation
964 Dodge Polara 500 conv. 1964 Dodge Polara 500 convertible
Production1962-1964
AssemblyDetroit, Michigan, United States
Car body style4-door Sedan (car)
2-door Coupe
2-door Convertible
4-door Station wagon
Wheelbase1962: 2946 mm (116 in)
1963-64: 3023 mm (119 in)

All Dodge models were given a smaller, lighter, sculpted body with a 116-inch (2,946 mm) wheelbase for 1962. This move came after Chrysler's president overheard and misunderstood Chevrolet chief Ed Cole to have said Chevrolet's largest cars would be downsized for 1962. Chrysler designers were forced to take the planned 1962 Dodge full-size line and shorten the design to fit a more Compact car wheelbase in a last-minute effort to compete with what was supposed to be a smaller new Chevrolet. However, Chevrolet in fact offered a range of truly full-size cars for 1962, and Dodge and Plymouth alike were stuck with smaller cars the public and motoring press found stylistically awkward. The new Dodge models were sized closer to Ford Motor Company's new intermediate Fairlane than to Ford's or GM's full-size models.

Quickly realizing the critical mistake they had made, Dodge hurriedly put together a new full-size car using the front end from the 1961 Dodge Polara and the body from the 1962 Chrysler. This new full-size model was known as the Custom 880, and became Dodge's top-of-the-line model when it was introduced on January 21, 1962. In 1963 a lower specification version was offered, known simply the Dodge 880.

Among the "sized in the middle of the big and little"[who?] 1962 Dodges was a bucket-seated sporty 2-door Hardtop called the Polara 500. It was also available as a convertible, and a 4-door hardtop was added in December. Positioned beneath the Polara 500 in descending order were the Dart 440 and the Dart 330. These models were marketed in Canada as the Dodge 440 and Dodge 330, and a Canada-only basic-spec Dodge 220 model was offered as well.

This model[vague] proved somewhat popular, but Dodge failed to capitalize on its success and never developed it to its full potential[who?]. The Dodges were available with optional V8 engine of up to 413 cu in (6.8 L). These mid-sized Dodges (and similar models from Plymouth) competed successfully as stock cars in NASCAR races, where their smaller size and lighter weight gave them an advantage over the larger competitive cars from Ford and General Motors.

The basic body of the 1962 model continued until 1964, revised and lengthened by the new Chrysler Vice President of styling Elwood Engel. The Polara range eventually grew to include a 4-door sedan. The Polara 500 was available only as a convertible or hardtop Coupé.

For the 1963 model year, the wheelbase was increased to 119 inches (3,023 mm) and the car received new sheet metal. The Dart name was reassigned to Dodge's line of compact cars that had previously been known as the Dodge Lancer. Positioned below the Polara were the plain 440 and 330. The 1964 models received a revised front end and new Automotive lighting to distinguish them from the 1963 cars.

1965–68


Third generation
DodgePolaraMagazine34-crop.jpg
Production1965-1968
AssemblyDetroit, Michigan, United States
Car body style4-door Sedan (car)
2-door Coupe
2-door Convertible
4-door Station wagon
Automobile platformC-body
Internal combustion engine383 cu in (6.3 L) V8
318 cu in (5.2 L) V8
Wheelbase121.0 in (3073 mm)
Length213.3 in (5418 mm)
Width80.0 in (2032 mm)
Height62.0 in (1575 mm)

For 1965, Chrysler moved the Polara back to a Chrysler "C" fullsize platform that was shared with Chrysler and Plymouth models. Once again offered in a full range of bodies (sedans, hardtops, station wagons, etc.), the Polara, in effect, replaced the plain 880 and remained a step below the Custom 880 and both turned over their top-of-the-line status to the new Dodge Monaco hardtop coupe, which would become a full line on its own the next year. From 1965 to 1970, the Polara would be the only full-sized Dodge to offer a convertible body-style in the U.S.

The previous mid-sized Dodges that were sold under the names Polara 500, Polara, 440, and 330 continued in production under the name Dodge Coronet, their wheelbase shrinking to 117 inches (2,972 mm).

In the 1966 model year, the Monaco would replace the Custom 880 as the mid-level model while a new Monaco 500 would replace the previous 1965 Monaco. 1967 models received a facelift and the hardtop coupe adopted a semi-fastback roof style with a reverse-slant rear quarter window.

One constant of the 1965 to 1968 models was taut, square-edged styling, which changed from year to year to keep the cars fresh. By 1968, however, it was obvious that Dodge's mainstream big cars would need a new look, and that would usher in a whole new philosophy.

1969–73

Fourth generation
1973 Dodge Polara's front-end styling. 1973 Dodge Polara
Production1969-1973
AssemblyDetroit, Michigan, United States
Car body style4-door Sedan (car)
2-door Coupe
2-door Convertible
4-door Station wagon
Automobile platformC-body
Internal combustion engine318 cu in (5.2 L) V8
360 cu in (5.9 L) V8
383 cu in (6.3 L) V8
440 cu in (7.2 L) V8
225 cu in (3.7 L) I6
Transmission (mechanics)3-speed Automatic transmission
3-speed Manual transmission
Wheelbase122.0 in (3099 mm)
Length1969-1970: 220.8 in (5608 mm)
1971-73: 220.0 in (5588 mm)
Width1969-1970: 79.3 in (2014 mm)
1971-73: 79.0 in (2007 mm)
Height1969-1970: 56.8 in (1443 mm)
1971-73: 63.4 in (1610 mm)

Where the previous four years' Dodges had been very straight-lined and lean (thanks to the talents of Elwood Engel), the new 1969 Polara wore a broad-shouldered and far more streamlined look. Called the "Fuselage Look", this style would persist through five model years, with subtle variations. The resulting look made these Polaras and Monacos appear much larger than the 1968 and earlier models.

For 1969 the Polara 500 was reintroduced as a mid-level series between the standard Polara and top-of-the-line Monaco. The Polara 500 was available as either a convertible or hardtop coupe. Available powerplants included 318, 383, and 440 cubic-inch V8 engines, along with a 225 cubic-inch slant-6 I6 engine. The 1969 Dodge Polara models offered the Super-Lite option, which placed a quartz auxiliary "turnpike beam" Headlamp in the driver side grille[1].

The 1970 Dodge Polara convertible (shown with rare "Super-Lite" auxiliary Headlight option) was the last full-sized convertible offered by Dodge. Only 842 were produced.

In 1970 the Polara would receive new front and rear styling that included a bumper that wrapped around the grill and headlights. The Polara 500 was replaced by the Polara Custom in hardtop coupe, 4-door hardtop sedan, and conventional 4-door sedan body styles. There was also a stripped-down Polara Special available as either a 4-door sedan or station wagon. 1970 was the last year that the Polara would be available in a convertible body style (with a scant 842 produced, making it extremely rare today), and Dodge would never again offer a full-sized convertible. Also exceptionally rare for 1970 was the "medallion" rear bumper. This bumper featured in all of the sales literature was discontinued after late August or early September 1969 production and replaced with a plain bumper lacking the center Fratzog medallion. Despite the fanfare, Dodge dropped the "Super-Lite" option at the end of the 1970 model year because of lack of consumer interest and various challenges to its legality in certain states.

The Polara Special disappeared for 1971, but a new sub-series was the Polara Brougham positioned above the Polara Custom, but still a step below the Monaco, the Polara Brougham was available only as a hardtop coupe or 4-door hardtop sedan.

The 1972 model year would see a fairly significant facelift with new sheet metal and the disappearance of the Polara Brougham model. 1973 models received new front-end styling in which they lost the previous wrap-around front bumper.

Sales of the Polara were falling by this time, however. Having been eclipsed by the Monaco, Dodge decided to drop the Polara after 1973. The redesigned 1974 Monaco would only serve for four model years before being replaced by the unsuccessful Dodge St. Regis.

Argentina

Argentinean Dodge Polara came in base, deluxe and sporty coupé versions

Variants of the North America Dodge Dart (using the same 111 in (2819 mm) wheelbase but different sheet metal) were produced in Argentina from 1968 to 1980, as the Dodge Polara, Coronado sedans, R/T, and GTX coupé and were available with a 225 cubic inch inline Slant-6 (3.7 liter), diesel and 318 cubic inch V8 – a rarity in Argentina, as most cars were 4 cyl or 6-cyl – and three- and four-speed manual and automatic transmissions. The general impression of these cars, witch where designed entirely in Argentina, are that they look like the 1968 Plymouth Satellite for the sedan and the Dodge Charger–Plymouth Road Runner for the coupé, but they are smaller (although larger than the Dodge Dart). However, the interior, especially the dashboard, remind you of the early 70s Dodge Dart–Plymouth Valiant. These coupes were not available in large numbers, but are collected by some purists and are hard to sell, since gas consumption is high, compared to the 4- and 6-cylinder cars the Argentine consumer is used to. Several restyling jobs of the whole line with new front and rear ends were carried out within its lifetime.

An automobile magazine, Corsa, road-tested a Polara GTX coupé with a V8 rated at 212 HP at 4400 rpm, 308 lb/ft at 2600 rpm and 8.5:1 compression ratio and obtained 189 km/h (117 mph) of top speed and 10.2 seconds from 0–100 km/h (0–62 mph).[2]

Brazilian Dodge Polara GLS

There was also a version of this model built in the 1970s as a Complete knock down known as the Dodge 3700GT in Spain. (Incidentally, one of these cars is seen in the first Batman movie directed by Tim Burton, as it was filmed in the U.K. but they obtained American cars for this film, although the 3700 GT was never sold in the U.S. so it is a pseudo-American car).

In Brazil, the Dodge Polara was revived – in name only – in 1977, on a version of the United Kingdom Chrysler Avenger (which in the early 1970s had been sold in North America as the Plymouth Cricket). This was sold until 1981.

In Argentina the same car was known as the Dodge 1500 until Volkswagen took over Chrysler Fevre Argentina SAIC, and the tooling for the car, in 1980. From then until 1988 the car was sold in Argentina as the Volkswagen Type 3 (not to be confused with the Volkswagen Type 3, also sold as the Volkswagen 1500 in most markets including Brazil.

References

  1. Dodge Super-Lite information & spec sheet
  2. www.valiant.org Chrysler in South America (1962-1982) - accessed 03 December 2008

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